Donjon: a fortified tower or  castle keep similar to the tower at the Castle of Vincennes, below.

Gable: the end wall of a building with a gable roof.

Gable roof: a V-shaped roof in which the two sides slope down from a single ridge line.

Hip or hipped Roof: a roof in which the sides slope down to the four walls from a central point.

Machicolation: In fortifications a balcony or walkway projecting from the face of the wall. The floor of the projecting area contains openings enabling the defenders to drop items onto the attackers below.